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Later the incident was to contribute to the story that he was the son of Zeus and, thus, to his “deification.” In spring 331 he returned to Tyre, appointed a Macedonian satrap for Syria, and prepared to advance into Mesopotamia. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Phoenician cities Marathus and Aradus came over quietly, and Parmenio was sent ahead to secure Damascus and its rich booty, including Darius’s war chest. Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian, he seized Zadracarta in Hyrcania and received the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables, some of whom he confirmed in their offices; in a diversion westward, perhaps to modern Āmol, he reduced the Mardi, a mountain people who inhabited the Elburz Mountains. In summer 324 Alexander attempted to solve another problem, that of the wandering mercenaries, of whom there were thousands in Asia and Greece, many of them political exiles from their own cities. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? But in pitched battle the striking force was the cavalry, and the core of the army, should the issue still remain undecided after the cavalry charge, was the infantry phalanx, 9,000 strong, armed with 13-foot spears and shields, and the 3,000 men of the royal battalions, the hypaspists. One of the world’s greatest military generals, he created a vast empire that stretched from Macedonia to Egypt and from Greece to part of India. During his youth, Alexander showed great observational powers when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus. Apparently he would be introduce on how to ride a horse, how to fight, and hunt. His parents were Philip II of Macedon and his wife Olympias. Omissions? Meanwhile, Darius with his Grand Army had advanced northward on the eastern side of Mount Amanus. On the Hyphasis he erected 12 altars to the 12 Olympian gods, and on the Hydaspes he built a fleet of 800 to 1,000 ships. At Susa Alexander held a feast to celebrate the seizure of the Persian empire, at which, in furtherance of his policy of fusing Macedonians and Persians into one master race, he and 80 of his officers took Persian wives; he and Hephaestion married Darius’s daughters Barsine (also called Stateira) and Drypetis, respectively, and 10,000 of his soldiers with native wives were given generous dowries. Half the army with the baggage under Hephaestion and Perdiccas, both cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Pass, while he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north. Alexander (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 1893 – 25 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death from the effects of a monkey The issue came to a head at Opis (324), when Alexander’s decision to send home Macedonian veterans under Craterus was interpreted as a move toward transferring the seat of power to Asia. Alexander, (born July 20, 1893, Athens—died Oct. 25, 1920, Tatoi Palace, near Athens), king of Greece from 1917 to 1920. From age 13 to 16 he was taught by Aristotle, who inspired him with an interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation, but he was later to advance beyond his teacher’s narrow precept that non-Greeks should be treated as slaves. From age 13 to 16 he was taught by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who inspired his interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation. This army was to prove remarkable for its balanced combination of arms. Ten thousand veterans were now sent back to Macedonia with gifts, and the crisis was surmounted. In September Alexander too set out along the coast through Gedrosia (modern Baluchistan), but he was soon compelled by mountainous country to turn inland, thus failing in his project to establish food depots for the fleet. We have evolved to search out patterns in people and events and from this arbitrarily we derive meaning. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In reconciliation Alexander married her, and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed. Alexander now planned to recall Antipater and supersede him by Craterus, but he was to die before this could be done. There is no reason to assume that his demand had any political background (divine status gave its possessor no particular rights in a Greek city); it was rather a symptom of growing megalomania and emotional instability. Das Hotel liegt an einem de… The Companion cavalry was reorganized in two sections, each containing four squadrons (now known as hipparchies); one group was commanded by Alexander’s oldest friend, Hephaestion, the other by Cleitus, an older man. No heir had been appointed to the throne, and his generals adopted Philip II’s half-witted illegitimate son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Alexander’s posthumous son by Roxana, Alexander IV, as kings, sharing out the satrapies among themselves, after much bargaining. He also displayed a deep interest in learning and encouraged the spread of Hellenistic culture. Representatives of the cities of Greece also came, garlanded as befitted Alexander’s divine status. He “Alexander creates a propaganda campaign that the Macedonians are invading Persia on behalf of the Greeks, even though Macedon wasn’t part of Greece and didn’t fight on the side of Greece … “I would accept,” Parmenio is reported to have said, “were I Alexander”; “I too,” was the famous retort, “were I Parmenio.” The storming of Tyre in July 332 was Alexander’s greatest military achievement; it was attended with great carnage and the sale of the women and children into slavery. On finding the army adamant, Alexander agreed to turn back. Crushing the mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Pass of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzanes, he entered Persepolis and Pasargadae. There was much speculation about the cause of death, and the most popular theories claim that he either contracted malaria or typhoid fever or that he was poisoned. Januar 1993 in East Sussex, England) war seit 1944 die Ehefrau von König Peter II. In spring 334 he crossed the Dardanelles, leaving Antipater, who had already faithfully served his father, as his deputy in Europe with over 13,000 men; he himself commanded about 30,000 foot and over 5,000 cavalry, of whom nearly 14,000 were Macedonians and about 7,000 allies sent by the Greek League. Alexander Of Greece. He married Aspasia Manos (1896-1972) 4 November 1919. His post of chiliarch (grand vizier) was left unfilled. The second son of King Constantine I, Alexander was born in the summer palace of Tatoi, on the outskirts of Athens. The exploits of the Ten Thousand, Greek soldiers of fortune, and of Agesilaus of Sparta, in successfully campaigning in Persian territory had revealed the vulnerability of the Persian empire. Kodza Déré River Railway 031 Région d'Isvor - visite dans le Decauville, le roi de Grèce et les généraux Guillaumat et Jérôme, 13 février 1918.jpg 669 × 404; 63 KB. All Parmenio’s adherents were now eliminated and men close to Alexander promoted. At this point Alexander benefitted from the sudden death of Memnon, the competent Greek commander of the Persian fleet. He gave his sister for marriage to the Persian general Bubares, in the late 6th century BC who was in Macedon at the time, in order to stop him from searching for Persian soldiers who had been killed by Alexander's men following his commands. At the peak of his power, the Hellenistic Empire was the most powerful in the world, and Alexander the Great … The other Greek states were cowed by this severity, and Alexander could afford to treat Athens leniently. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asiaand northeast Africa, and b… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Ideal für alle die, die während Ihres Urlaubs die griechische Kultur kennen lernen möchten oder das Nachtleben von Kassandra mit der Ruhe vom Hotel kombinieren möchten. Shortly afterward, at Bactra, he attempted to impose the Persian court ceremonial, involving prostration (proskynesis), on the Greeks and Macedonians too, but to them this custom, habitual for Persians entering the king’s presence, implied an act of worship and was intolerable before a human. In the For us, parentage is paramount. Die Deluxe Zimmer wurden im Jahr 2018 rennoviert, sowie das Restaurant, Roof Top Cocktail Bar und Pool des Hotels. As a Youth Alexander was tutored by Leonidas (possibly his uncle) and the great Greek philosopher Aristotle. He now seems to have become convinced of the reality of his own divinity and to have required its acceptance by others. The empire could hardly survive Alexander’s death as a unit. Alexander, (born July 20, 1893, Athens—died Oct. 25, 1920, Tatoi Palace, near Athens), king of Greece from 1917 to 1920. As a teenager, Alexander became known for his exploits on the battlefield. While he could be ruthless and impulsive, Alexander was also charismatic and sensible. Alexander von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was born 1 August 1893 in Tatoi, Greece to Constantine I of Greece (1868-1923) and Sophie von Preußen (1870-1932) and died 25 October 1920 in Athens, Greece of sepsis. Updates? Before continuing his pursuit of Darius, who had retreated into Bactria, he assembled all the Persian treasure and entrusted it to Harpalus, who was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer. Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, and Alexander abandoned it. At Phrada in Drangiana (either near modern Nad-e ʿAli in Seistan or farther north at Farah), he at last took steps to destroy Parmenio and his family. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-king-of-Greece, First World War - Biography of Alexander, King of Greece, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Alexander, King of Greece, Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Alexander, King of Greece. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He at once executed the princes of Lyncestis, alleged to be behind Philip’s murder, along with all possible rivals and the whole of the faction opposed to him. He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Persians, and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people. Moreover, he needed the wealth of Persia if he was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the 500 talents he owed. He found that his treasurer, Harpalus, evidently fearing punishment for peculation, had absconded with 6,000 mercenaries and 5,000 talents to Greece; arrested in Athens, he escaped and later was murdered in Crete. The second son of Constantine I, Alexander, was born in the summer palace Tatoi, located in a suburb of Athens. For a long time his mind had dwelt on ideas of godhead. In spring 326, crossing the Indus near Attock, Alexander entered Taxila, whose ruler, Taxiles, furnished elephants and troops in return for aid against his rival Porus, who ruled the lands between the Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and the Acesines (modern Chenāb). He also accepted the surrender of Darius’s Greek mercenaries. The army was accompanied by surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, court officials, and historians; from the outset Alexander seems to have envisaged an unlimited operation. Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Khawak Pass (11,650 feet [3,550 metres]), Alexander brought his army, despite food shortages, to Drapsaca (sometimes identified with modern Banu [Andarab], probably farther north at Qunduz); outflanked, Bessus fled beyond the Oxus (modern Amu Darya), and Alexander, marching west to Bactra-Zariaspa (modern Balkh [Wazirabad] in Afghanistan), appointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria. Alexander was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia in July 356 BC. Corrections? When the Thebans refused to surrender, he made an entry and razed their city to the ground, sparing only temples and Pindar’s house; 6,000 were killed and all survivors sold into slavery. He murdered Cleitus, one of his most-trusted commanders, in a drunken quarrel, but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason. If Plutarch’s figure of 120,000 men has any reality, however, it must include all kinds of auxiliary services, together with muleteers, camel drivers, medical corps, peddlers, entertainers, women, and children; the fighting strength perhaps stood at about 35,000. He is also said to have sent an expedition to discover the causes of the flooding of the Nile. Following up Nearchus’s voyage, he now founded an Alexandria at the mouth of the Tigris and made plans to develop sea communications with India, for which an expedition along the Arabian coast was to be a preliminary. As Mazaeus’s appointment indicated, Alexander’s views on the empire were changing. The march was attended with much fighting and heavy, pitiless slaughter; at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes (Ravi) River, Alexander received a severe wound which left him weakened. A year later Philip divorced Olympias, and, after a quarrel at a feast held to celebrate his father’s new marriage, Alexander and his mother fled to Epirus, and Alexander later went to Illyria. It was probably in connection with a general order now sent out to the Greeks to honour Hephaestion as a hero that Alexander linked the demand that he himself should be accorded divine honours. In November 332 he reached Egypt. Böngésszen milliónyi szót és kifejezést a világ minden nyelvén. He was born in 356 bce at Pella in Macedonia, the son of Philip II and Olympias (daughter of King Neoptolemus of Epirus). Philotas, Parmenio’s son, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, was implicated in an alleged plot against Alexander’s life, condemned by the army, and executed; and a secret message was sent to Cleander, Parmenio’s second in command, who obediently assassinated him. Alexander; King of the Hellenes; Reign: 11 June 1917 – 25 October 1920: Predecessor: Constantine I: Successor: Constantine I: Prime Ministers: See list . It took Alexander until the autumn of 328 to crush the most determined opponent he encountered in his campaigns. For the ancient king, see Alexander the Great. Hugely ambitious, Alexander drew inspiration from the gods Achilles, Heracles, and Dionysus. Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. Alexander of Greece : biography 1 August 1893 – 25 October 1920 Two days later, Alexander’s body was conveyed to Athens Cathedral where it lay in state, until his funeral on 29 October. Alexander the Great's conquests freed the West from the menace of Persian rule and spread Greek civilization and culture into Asia and Egypt. Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India. Shortly afterward, however, Callisthenes was held to be privy to a conspiracy among the royal pages and was executed (or died in prison; accounts vary); resentment of this action alienated sympathy from Alexander within the Peripatetic school of philosophers, with which Callisthenes had close connections. Alexander pursued the defeated Persian forces for 35 miles to Arbela, but Darius escaped with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries into Media. The second son of King Constantine I Alexander was born in the summer palace of Tatoi on the outskirts of Athens. This ruthless action excited widespread horror but strengthened Alexander’s position relative to his critics and those whom he regarded as his father’s men. Alexander the Great leading his forces against the retreating Persian army led by Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333. The following spring at Babylon he received complimentary embassies from the Libyans and from the Bruttians, Etruscans, and Lucanians of Italy; but the story that embassies also came from more distant peoples, such as Carthaginians, Celts, Iberians, and even Romans, is a later invention. Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in September (325), and he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October. Susa, the capital, also surrendered, releasing huge treasures amounting to 50,000 gold talents; here Alexander established Darius’s family in comfort. Alexandra von Griechenland (1943) Alexandra von Griechenland (* 25. In the battle that followed, Alexander won a decisive victory. He was born on 1 August 1893 (21 July O.S.) After conquering cities, Alexander the Great would name them after himself. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The people welcomed him as their deliverer, and the Persian satrap Mazaces wisely surrendered. Shortly afterward, father and son were reconciled and Alexander returned, but his position as heir was jeopardized. After taking Byblos (modern Jubayl) and Sidon (Arabic Ṣaydā), he met with a check at Tyre, where he was refused entry into the island city. Alexander had on several occasions encouraged favourable comparison of his own accomplishments with those of Dionysus or Heracles. Between 326 and 324 over a third of his satraps were superseded and six were put to death, including the Persian satraps of Persis, Susiana, Carmania, and Paraetacene; three generals in Media, including Cleander, the brother of Coenus (who had died a little earlier), were accused of extortion and summoned to Carmania, where they were arrested, tried, and executed. Turning, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. Leaving Parmenio in Syria, Alexander advanced south without opposition until he reached Gaza on its high mound; there bitter resistance halted him for two months, and he sustained a serious shoulder wound during a sortie. King Alexander of Greece and General Paraskevopoulos in Bandirma.jpg 1,342 × 956; 310 KB. King Alexander of Greece in Bandirma.jpg 1,313 × 992; 305 KB. In June Alexander fought his last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes. Kingship, a worldwide phenomenon, can be elective, as in medieval Germany, but is usually hereditary; it may be absolute or constitutional and…. At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. At Memphis Alexander sacrificed to Apis, the Greek term for Hapi, the sacred Egyptian bull, and was crowned with the traditional double crown of the pharaohs; the native priests were placated and their religion encouraged. Both in Egypt and elsewhere in the Greek cities he received divine honours. Bessus was now in Bactria raising a national revolt in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great King. Alexander’s march through Gedrosia proved disastrous; waterless desert and shortage of food and fuel caused great suffering, and many, especially women and children, perished in a sudden monsoon flood while encamped in a wadi. The second son of King Constantine (ruled 1913–17 and 1920–22) and Queen Sophia, Alexander became king (June 12, 1917) when his father was forced by the Allies of World War I to abdicate and thereby allow his country to join them in the war. While the siege of Tyre was in progress, Darius sent a new offer: he would pay a huge ransom of 10,000 talents for his family and cede all his lands west of the Euphrates. Two years later he commanded the left wing at the Battle of Chaeronea, in which Philip defeated the allied Greek states, and displayed personal courage in breaking the Sacred Band of Thebes, an elite military corps composed of 150 pairs of lovers. For us, parentage is paramount. He founded the city of Alexandria near the western arm of the Nile on a fine site between the sea and Lake Mareotis, protected by the island of Pharos, and had it laid out by the Rhodian architect Deinocrates. Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia, (born 356 bce, Pella, Macedonia [northwest of Thessaloníki, Greece]—died June 13, 323 bce, Babylon [near Al-Ḥillah, Iraq]), king of Macedonia (336–323 bce), who overthrew the Persian empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms. His conquest of Egypt had completed his control of the whole eastern Mediterranean coast. From Phrada, Alexander pressed on during the winter of 330–329 up the valley of the Helmand River, through Arachosia, and over the mountains past the site of modern Kābul into the country of the Paropamisadae, where he founded Alexandria by the Caucasus. The second son of King Constantine (ruled 1913–17 and 1920–22) and Queen Sophia, Alexander became king (June 12, 1917) when his father was forced by the Allies of World War I to abdicate and thereby allow his country to join them in the war. 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